Land of India can be devided into plains, mountains and plateaus. About 43% of land is plain and is available for crop farming. 30 % of land is mountainous which provide forest and wildlife. About 27 % of land has plateaus which contain minerals, forests.
Types of soil
- Alluvial soil and it’s formation
These soils are formed by the deposition of rivers. It covers 40 % of the land area. Alluvial soils have been brought down and deposited by three great himalayan rivers , Sutlej, Ganga and Brahmaputra and their tributaries.
- These soils are loamy and permeable . In the dry hot seasons they do not develop cracks .
- Very fertile.
- Rice , wheat, cotton , oilseeds, sugarcane etc are mainly grown crops .
Alluvial soils are of two types.
Bangar soil is the old alluviam soil. Bangar soil often contains kankar or modules with calcium carbonates. Bangar is not renewed frequency. Hence it is less fertile. It is found away from the river and higher than ground level.
Khadar soil is the new alluviam soil , it means khadar is younger than Bangar . Khadar is finer ,more sandy and free from kankar modules. Khadar is renewed frequently and is more fertile. Khadar is found near river channels in details and in flood plains.
Soil and Soil erosion
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Black soil ( Regur soil )
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Arid and Desert Soil
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What is soil erosion ?
Soil erosion can be defined as the wearing away of the earth’s surface by the force of wind and water, and mainly consists of soil particle dislodgement, entrainment, transport, and deposition.
There are several agents responsible for soil erosion :
As we know that when strong winds blow, the topsoil close by the characteristic issue is occupied by the wind. This happens even more as often as possible when the land isn’t verified with grass or plants. Such conditions are extraordinarily typical in desert and semi-desert districts where strong winds blow in all regards as frequently as could be allowed.
When it rains in the uneven locales, the soil escapes towards the fields. The running water stores the mineral-rich soil in the riverbed and during the time this announcement of soil can change the course of the waterway. This can incite floods which cause the demolition of life and property. Water erosion prompts loss of agriculture potential.
At the point when cattle are permitted to munch on a similar field more than once, all the accessible grass, including the roots are eaten by them. This makes the topsoil vulnerable to wind and streaming water, prompting soil erosion.
People have taken land from the forest to develop so as to nourish the consistently expanding populace and to construct houses, businesses, and so forth. Chopping down of trees on a huge scale for these objects is deforestation. The underlying foundations of trees hold the soil together, hence keeping the soil from getting removed. At the point when extensive zones of the backwoods are cleared, the topsoil gets dissolved by wind and streaming water.
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Soil and Soil conservation
Counteractive action of soil erosion is additionally called conservation of soil. The soil erosion can be anticipated by the accompanying ways:
Planting new trees and plants is afforestation. We live in light of the fact that plants live. On the off chance that the plants bite the dust, every single living thing will likewise pass on. Subsequently, at whatever point trees are chopped down new trees ought to be planted. Planting trees in bumpy regions are best for conservation.
2. Crop Rotation
Between harvesting one crop and planting the following harvest, the fields lie uncovered; there is a timespan when the farmland does not have any harvests. Amid this period, the rancher either develops grass or develops different harvests to keep soil from erosion. This encourages the soil to recapture the lost minerals.
3. Terrace Farming
In hilly territories, farming is done by cutting strides on the slopes of the slopes. This hinders the progression of water and soil expelled from one stage is stored on the following stage. In this way, the soil is never totally lost. This is terrace farming.
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